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低轨道人造卫星(CHAMP、GRACE、GOCE)与高精度地球重力场——卫星重力大地测量的最新发展及其对地球科学的重大影响

1 引言地球重力场在地球科学中起着双重作用。其一是通过比较实际的重力场和理想地球 (例如 ,流体静态平衡的球体 )的重力场的差可以得到重力异常。重力异常表明地球内部的质量不平衡状态 ,并提供地球动力学的重要信息。重力异常是可以观察地球内部构造的 3个手段之一 ,另外两个手段是地震波和地磁场。第二个作用就是大地水准面 (和静止平均海平面相重合的等位面 )。大地水准面是所有地貌 (如陆地、冰川和海洋等 )的参考面。而大地水准面仅仅是由重力场来定义的 ,它可以通过后者的任何改善而改善。凡是涉及的高程变化比较小时 ,例如 ,工程和大地测量 ,或者研究冰川运动、海平面变化和海洋环流时 ,对大地水准面的精度要求就非常高。目前重力场数据来源有 3种。第一种是地表重力观测数据。通常是取 1 0 0× 1 0 0 km或者 5 0× 5 0km面元的平均重力异常。它们的精度取决于数据的密度和高程及重力测量的精度。由于地表面不可能全部都进行有效观测...  (本文共9页) 阅读全文>>

《草业科学》2002年01期
草业科学

“耐荫冠军”(Shade Champ)

“耐荫冠军”(ShadeChamp)发草 :经改良的丛生发草。生长低矮 ,色泽浓绿 ,颜色格调整齐。在多数冷地型草坪草分布区均表...  (本文共1页) 阅读全文>>

《测绘学报》2002年S1期
测绘学报

Time Series Correlated Error's Simulation Scheme with the Application to Simulate the Ephemerides Error of CHAMP

1 IntroductionComputersimulationexperimentbecomesmoreandmoreimportantmeansofexperiment.Comparingwiththetrueexperiment,computersimulationexperimenthastheadvantagessuchaslowcost,highefficiencyandtheresultsobtainedfromcomputersimulationisgettingmoreandmorereliable .Inthesimulationex periment,theschemeoferrorsimulationplaysaveryimportantrole .Iftheerrorisnotproperlysimulated ,theobtainedresultsmaybeunreliable .Thispaperd...  (本文共4页) 阅读全文>>

《Geo-Spatial Information Science》2008年03期
Geo-Spatial Information Science

改进的能量守恒方法及其在CHAMP重力场恢复中的应用(英文)

Introduction The German Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), launched in July 2000, carries a GPS re- ceiver and a three-axes accelerometer. It is the first sat- ellite that provides orbit and accelerometer data simul- taneously. Using these data, a global earth gravity field can be recovered. Many methods, such as, Kaula’s orbit perturbation[1], the acceleration method[2, 4], numerical integration method[2, 5]...  (本文共6页) 阅读全文>>

《Geo-Spatial Information Science》2006年03期
Geo-Spatial Information Science

High Precision Orbit Determination of CHAMP Satellite

IntroductionCHAMP satellite was launched on July 15 ,2000 to study the earth gravity field, magneticfield, and at mosphere/ionosphere . CHAMPmission is managed by GeoForshungsZentrum(GFZ) Potsdam withinternational partners .In-cluding accelerometer ,star trackers ,and a laserretro-reflector , CHAMP satellite carries theBlackJack GPSreceiver to support PODactivitiesfor the mission.GPS measurements have at leastthree a...  (本文共7页) 阅读全文>>

《Geo-Spatial Information Science》2005年03期
Geo-Spatial Information Science

Evaluation of CHAMP Satellite Orbit with SLR Measurements

IntroductionThe German geophysical research satelliteCHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) ,whichis designedfor geosciences and at mospher-ic research, was launched on July 15 ,2000 .Itcarries 7 different instrumentsincludingthe GPSreceiver TRSR-2 and the Laser retro-reflector tofulfill the mission with scientific objectives . Bydetermining the transmitting ti me of laser pulsesbetweenthe satellitelaser ranging (...  (本文共5页) 阅读全文>>